An apicoectomy, also called root end resection, is a surgical procedure intended to remove infection from the root tip and the surrounding tissue. It is necessary when an infection and inflammation continues after root canal therapy or endodontic retreatment. During this procedure, an incision is made in the gum tissue to expose the bone and surrounding inflamed tissue. The damaged tissue is removed along with the end of the root tip. A root-end filling is placed to prevent re-infection of the root and the gum is sutured. The bone naturally heals around the root over a period of months, restoring full function. Following the procedure, there may be some discomfort or slight swelling while the incision heals. This is normal for any surgical procedure. To alleviate any discomfort, an appropriate pain medication will be recommended.